វិជ្ជាជីវះខាងសារពត៌មាន គឺជាការ ស្វែងរកដោយខ្ជាប់ខ្ធួន នឹង រាយការណ៍នូវហេតុការណ៍រឿង ទាំងឡាយឬ ការនិយមទៅរកសវនាការក្រៅប្រទេសមួយ ហើយនិងពិតប្រាកដ៏ ។ ថ្វីបើសារពត៍មានមានការផ្លាស់ប្តូរជាច្រើនក័ដោយ ឧត្តមគតិគឺប្រាប់នូវសវនាការអនាគត។សារពត័មាន រួមមាន វប្បធម៌ ទិដ្ឋភាពសង្គម ដូចជាសិល្បះកំសាន្តផងដែរ។កាបោះពុម្ពផ្សាយរួមបញ្ចូល រូបថតពត៌មាន ហើរូបថតនោះត្រូវតែមានលក្ខណះជ្រាលជ្រៅ នឹងជាលក្ខណ ឯកសារ។ នៅសម័យបច្ចុប្បន្ន ការផ្សាព្វផ្សាយពត៌មានបានក្លាយជាអ្នកផ្តល់ នៃពត៌មាន និងមតិយោបលអំពីករណីកិច្ចសាធារណះយ៉ាងសំខាន់ប៉ុន្តែមុខងារ និងខបញ្ញត្តិនៃសារពត៌មាន ស្របទៅនឹងប្រភេទនៃប្រពន្ធ័ផ្សព្ធផ្សាយ អ៊ីនធឺណេត ដទៃទៀត កុំពុងដែលដំណើលការផ្លាស់ប្តូរ ក្រាហ្វ៊ីតពត៌មាន និងរបៀបកាន់កាប់ពត៌មានហើយត្រូវបានប្រើ ដោយបានប្រើប្រាស់គំនិតគ្រូវភ្លេងល្បីល្បាញត្រូវបានបដិវត្តបន្ទុប់សារពត៌មាន។
កាសែតដំបូងគេត្រូវបានចែកចាយនៅក្នុងឧបលរណ៍សតវត្សរ៍ទី17 ពីរដងក្នុងមួយអាទិត្យ។ កាសែតអង់គ្លេសផ្សេងទៀតដែលបានជោគជ័យគឺ The Daily Courant. ។ កាសែតទីមួយនៃជនជាតិអាមេរិកាំង – Benjamin Harriss Publick Occurrences both Foreighn និង Domestick នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ1690ត្រូវបានបោះពុម្ភប៉ុន្តែត្រូវបានយ៉ាងរហ័សដោយមិនមានអាជ្ញាប័ណ្ណ។ភាគច្រើនកាសែតជនជាតិអាមេរិកាំងនៃសម័យកាល ជំទាស់ននឹងរដ្ឋភិបាលប្រជាជនអង់គ្លេស។ជាហេតុបណ្តាលអោយប្រទេសអង់គ្លេសចាត់វិធានការបំបាត់ទៅលើសាព័ត៌មាន ជិត1800 មានកាសែតប្រាំពីររយនៅសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិច។នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ1833 Benjamin Day បានបើក The Sun រដ្ឋនិរយ៉ក និង "Penny Press."បានបង្កើតក្រសែតប្រចាំថ្ងៃ បន្ថែមជាមួយនឹងមាតិការរឿងដែលភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលជាមួយ និងគោលបំណងក្នុងសកម្មភាពការងារអ្នកគ្រាំទ្រ ចំនួនលក់កាន់តែច្រើន។ក្នុងអំឡុងពេលសង្រ្គាមស៊ីវិល ភាពលំអដោយរូបត្រូវអនុញ្ញាតអោយច្រើន រូបភាព និងទូរលិខសាស្រ្ត បង្កើនល្បឿនយ៉ាងសំខាន់ ដែលបានអភិវឌ្ឍន៍ ឡើង នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ1846 The Associated Press ខ្សែបម្រើត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើងការផ្សងរួមគ្នាចន្លោះកាសែតធំៗពីរបីដើម្បីចែកចែយពត៌មានទៅដល់ខាងទូរលេខពីអឺរ៉ុប។ APនៅបច្ចុប្បន្នគឺទីភ្ញាក់ងារសារព័ត៍មានរបស់ពិភពលោកដែលចាស់ជាងគេ។នៅឆ្នាំ1851 George Jones អ្នកបោះបុម្ភផ្សាយ និង Henry Raymond បានបើក The New York Daily Times ហើយបានប្តូរឈ្មោះនៅពេលក្រោយ The New York Times ។នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ1890 Joseph Pulitzer ម្ចាស់ការសែតនៅក្នុងរដ្ឋនិវយ៉ត និងកន្លែងដទៃៗ "yellow journalism"បានតបទៅវិញ ក្រោយមកមានឈ្មោះមាន comic strip – "The Yellow Kid" ដែលបានបោះពុម្ភផ្សាយដោយ Pulitzer។
"សេរីភាពសាព័ត៍មាន" រដ្ឋភិបាលមានការផ្លាស់ប្តូរយ៉ាងទូលាយ និងតទៅអ្នកសារព័ត៍មានប្រតិបត្តិមានជាមួយនឹងការត្រួតពិនិត្យដែលអាចអោយពួកគេស្រាវជ្រាវ និងសរសេរ ហើយអង្គការសារព័ត៍មានអាចធ្វើការផ្សព្វផ្សាយ។រដ្ឋភិបាលខ្លះបានធានាទៅលើសេរីភាពនៃសាព័ត៍មាន ខណះដែលប្រទេសផ្សេងកំណតដោយតឹងរ៉ឹង អ្វីទៅជាសារព័ត៍មានដែលអាចស្រាវជ្រាវ ឬផ្សព្វផ្សាយ។
អ្នកសារព័ត៍មានជាច្រើននៅប្រទេសមួយចំនួនមានសិទិ្វខ្លះៗមិនមែនត្រឹមសមជិកនៃសាធារណជនទូទៅ រាប់បញ្ចូលការចូលដែលល្អប្រសើរចំពោះព្រឹតិ្តការណ៍ កន្លែលកើតបទឧក្រិដ្ឋ នឹងសនិ្នសិទិអ្នកការសែត និងពង្រីកការសម្ភាសន៏ជាមួយមន្រ្តីរាជ្ជការល្បីល្បាញ និងភ្នែកសាធារណជនដទៃទៀត។
ជាទូទៅអ្នកសារព័ត៍មានត្រូមានលក្ខណះសម្បត្តិជាច្រើនដូចជាត្រូវមានភាពស្មោះត្រង់ សច្ចធម៌ គុណធម៌ យុទ្ធត្តិធម៌ និងមិនមានភាពលំអៀងទៅខាងណា ឫបក្សណាមួយនោះទេ។ ហើយអ្នកសារព័ត៍មាន គឺមានតួនាទីជាច្រើនដែលស្មើរនិងភ្នែកច្រមុះ របស់ប្រជាពលរដ្ឋដែលពួកគេតែងតែមានជំនឿទៅលើអ្នកកាសែត ប៉ុន្តែអ្នកកាសែតត្រូវមានភារកិច្ចជាប់ខ្លួន ពោលគឺស្វែងរកនៅព័ត៌មានណាដែរថ្មីៗ និងរឿងហេតុដែលមានការកើតឡើងនៅក្នុងសង្គម ឫនៅជុំវិញពិភពលោកដើម្បីចែកចាយនិងធ្វើការចាក់ផ្សាយទៅកាន់មនុស្សក្នុងសង្គម និងមនុស្សនៅជុំវិញពិភពលោក។អ្នកសារព័ត៍មានជាតិមួយចំនួនដែលមានឯកសិទ្ធិទូទៅគឺមិនបានធ្វើវាទេនិងជាផ្លូវចូលដ៏ល្អនៃការផ្សព្វផ្សាយហេតុទៅកាន់ទីសាធារណះអោយកាន់តែប្រសើរថែមទៀតហើយត្រូវស្វាសស្វែងក្នងការរកវិធីយ៉ាងណាអោយបានកាន់តែល្អ។
អ្នកកាសែតក៏ត្រូវមាននៅការបញ្ជាក់នៅរូបថតមួយចំនួនផងដែរព្រោះវាបានជាប់ទាក់ទងជាមួយនិងហេតុការណ៍ឬាំងនោះផងដែរនិងងាយស្រួលអោយអ្នកអានឫអ្នកមើលឆាប យល់។ព័ត៌មានដែលបានផ្សាយចេញទៅបានធ្វើអោយនិយោជិកបានដឹងនៅព័ត៌មានដែរល្អៗអំពីព័ត៌មានដែលផ្សាយចេញទៅ និងមានមនុស្សមួយចំនួនទៀតបានចូលចិត្តច្រៀងចំរៀង អំពីវិជ្ជាជីវះសារព័ត៌មានផងដែរហើយពួកគេក៏មិនដែរចាក់ចេញពីរង្វងនៃសារព័ត៌មានដែរឯមនុស្សឯទៀតដែរចូលចិត្តសារព័ត៌មាននិងចូលចិត្តថតរូបដែរ។
Newspapers and periodicals often contain features see Feature style often composed by journalists who specialize in this form.
Feature articles are usually longer forms of writing; more attention is paid to style than in straight news reports. They are often combined with photographs, drawings or other "art." They may also be highlighted by typographic effects or colors.
Writing features can be more demanding than writing straight news stories, because while a journalist must apply the same amount of effort to accurately gather and report the facts of the story, the journalist should also write it to be creative and interesting. The lead or first few paragraphs of the story; see Nut graph must grab the readers attention and still accurately embody the ideas of the article.
In the last half of the 20th century, the line blurred between straight news reporting and feature writing. Journalists and publications today experiment with different approaches to writing. Tom Wolfe, Gay Talese, Hunter S. Thompson are some of these examples. Urban and alternative newsweeklies go even further in blurring the distinction, and many magazines include more features than straight news.
Some television news shows experimented with alternative formats, and many TV shows that claimed to be news shows were not considered as such by traditional critics, because their content and methods do not adhere to accepted journalistic standards. National Public Radio, on the other hand, is considered a good example of mixing straight news reporting, features, and combinations of the two, usually meeting standards of high quality. Other U.S. public radio news organizations have achieved similar results.
6. Role of journalism
In the 1920s, as modern journalism was just taking form, writer Walter Lippmann and American philosopher John Dewey debated over the role of journalism in a democracy. Their differing philosophies still characterize a debate about the role of journalism in society and the nation-state.
Lippmann understood that journalisms role at the time was to act as a mediator or translator between the public and policy making elites. The journalist became the middleman. When elites spoke, journalists listened and recorded the information, distilled it, and passed it on to the public for their consumption. His reasoning behind this was that the public was not in a position to deconstruct the growing and complex flurry of information present in modern society, and so an intermediary was needed to filter news for the masses. Lippman put it this way: The public is not smart enough to understand complicated, political issues. Furthermore, the public was too consumed with their daily lives to care about complex public policy. Therefore the public needed someone to interpret the decisions or concerns of the elite to make the information plain and simple. That was the role of journalists. Lippmann believed that the public would affect the decision-making of the elite with their vote. In the meantime, the elite would keep the business of power running. In Lippmans world, the journalists role was to inform the public of what the elites were doing. It was also to act as a watchdog over the elites, as the public had the final say with their votes. Effectively that kept the public at the bottom of the power chain, catching the flow of information that is handed down from experts/elites.
Dewey, on the other hand, believed the public was not only capable of understanding the issues created or responded to by the elite, it was in the public forum that decisions should be made after discussion and debate. When issues were thoroughly vetted, then the best ideas would bubble to the surface. Dewey believed journalists should do more than simply pass on information. He believed they should weigh the consequences of the policies being enacted. Over time, his idea has been implemented in various degrees, and is more commonly known as "community journalism".
This concept of community journalism is at the centre of new developments in journalism. In this new paradigm, journalists are able to engage citizens and the experts/elites in the proposition and generation of content. Its important to note that while there is an assumption of equality, Dewey still celebrates expertise. Dewey believes the shared knowledge of many is far superior to a single individuals knowledge. Experts and scholars are welcome in Deweys framework, but there is not the hierarchical structure present in Lippmans understanding of journalism and society. According to Dewey, conversation, debate, and dialogue lie at the heart of a democracy.
While Lippmans journalistic philosophy might be more acceptable to government leaders, Deweys approach is a better description of how many journalists see their role in society, and, in turn, how much of society expects journalists to function. Americans, for example, may criticize some of the excesses committed by journalists, but they tend to expect journalists to serve as watchdogs on government, businesses and actors, enabling people to make informed decisions on the issues of the time.
6.1. Role of journalism The elements of journalism
According to The Elements of Journalism, a book by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, there are nine elements of journalism. In order for a journalist to fulfill their duty of providing the people with the information, they need to be free and self-governing. They must follow these guidelines:
- It must strive to make the news significant, interesting, and relevant.
- It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise.
- Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience.
- It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional.
- Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover.
- Its essence is discipline of verification.
- Its first loyalty is to the citizens.
- It must serve as an independent monitor of power.
- Journalisms first obligation is to the truth.
In the April 2007 edition of the book, they added the last element, the rights and responsibilities of citizens to make it a total of ten elements of journalism.
7. Professional and ethical standards
In the UK, all newspapers are bound by the Code of Practice of the Press Complaints Commission. This includes points like respecting peoples privacy and ensuring accuracy. However, the Media Standards Trust has criticised the PCC, claiming it needs to be radically changed to secure public trust of newspapers.
This is in stark contrast to the media climate prior to the 20th Century, where the media market was dominated by smaller newspapers and pamphleteers who usually had an overt and often radical agenda, with no presumption of balance or objectivity.
7.1. Professional and ethical standards Failing to uphold standards
Such a code of conduct can, in the real world, be difficult to uphold consistently. Journalists who believe they are being fair or objective may give biased accounts - by reporting selectively, trusting too much to anecdote, or giving a partial explanation of actions. See Media bias. Even in routine reporting, bias can creep into a story through a reporters choice of facts to summarize, or through failure to check enough sources, hear and report dissenting voices, or seek fresh perspectives.
A news organizations budget inevitably reflects decision-making about what news to cover, for what audience, and in what depth. Those decisions may reflect conscious or unconscious bias. When budgets are cut, editors may sacrifice reporters in distant news bureaus, reduce the number of staff assigned to low-income areas, or wipe entire communities from the publications zone of interest.
Publishers, owners and other corporate executives, especially advertising sales executives, can try to use their powers over journalists to influence how news is reported and published. Journalists usually rely on top management to create and maintain a "firewall" between the news and other departments in a news organization to prevent undue influence on the news department. One journalism magazine, Columbia Journalism Review, has made it a practice to reveal examples of executives who try to influence news coverage, of executives who do not abuse their powers over journalists, and of journalists who resist such pressures.
Self-censorship is a growing problem in journalism, particularly in covering countries that sharply restrict press freedom. As commercial pressure in the media marketplace grows, media organizations are loath to lose access to high-profile countries by producing unflattering stories. For example, CNN admitted that it had practiced self-censorship in covering the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq in order to ensure continued access after the regime had thrown out other media. CNN correspondent Christiane Amanpour also complained of self-censorship during the invasion of Iraq due to the fear of alienating key audiences in the US. There are claims that the media are also avoiding covering stories about repression and human rights violations by the Israeli and Iranian regimes in order to maintain a presence in those countries.
8. Legal status
Governments have widely varying policies and practices towards journalists, which control what they can research and write, and what press organizations can publish. Some governments guarantee the freedom of the press; while other nations severely restrict what journalists can research and/or publish.
Journalists in many nations have some privileges that members of the general public do not; including better access to public events, crime scenes and press conferences, and to extended interviews with public officials, celebrities and others in the public eye.
Journalists who elect to cover conflicts, whether wars between nations or insurgencies within nations, often give up any expectation of protection by government, if not giving up their rights to protection by government. Journalists who are captured or detained during a conflict are expected to be treated as civilians and to be released to their national government.
8.1. Legal status Right to protect confidentiality of sources
Journalists interaction with sources sometimes involves confidentiality, an extension of freedom of the press giving journalists a legal protection to keep the identity of a confidential informant private even when demanded by police or prosecutors; withholding sources can land journalists in contempt of court, or in jail.
In the United States, there is no right to protect sources in a federal court; Though federal courts will refuse to force journalists to reveal sources, unless the information the court seeks is highly relevant to the case, and theres no other way to get it. State courts provide varying degrees of such protection. Journalists who refuse to testify even when ordered to can be found in contempt of court and fined or jailed.